Tag Archives: Adult Education

Les Miserables: Adult Literacy & Electing a Pope

Les Miserables Book Cover

Get it now from Amazon

There are few books that give me as much perspective on TODAY’s world as it does on history. There are even fewer books on my must-read list, but Les Miserables is something I encourage EVERYONE to dig into at least once. Sure, you can be swept away by the movie or musical and be done in a few hours. The unabridged version of the book took me six months to get through. But it was worth every minute. It is a thousand short stories in one, each character in its own universe, each historical event described in lively detail that surrounds you with the grit and misery and hope. The musical adaptation barely even touches its depths.

For example, did you know that Jean Valjean was in an adult literacy program in his corrections facility? Those are the politically correct words we would use today, but Victor Hugo did not try to gloss over prison life in his portrait of the dirt cheap labor and unchecked violence pervading the only institution where slavery is still legal. (And the U.S. has enshrined this “permanent underclass” in our own constitution in the 13th amendment) Hugo has an interesting description of Valjean’s corrections education:

“At Toulon [the prison] there was a school for the prisoners conducted by some rather ignorant friars, where the essentials were taught to any of the men who were willing. He [Jean Valjean] was one. At forty he went to school and learned to read, write, and do arithmetic. He felt that to increase his knowledge was to strengthen his hatred. In certain cases, instruction and enlightenment can actually work to  underscore the wrong.”

So what’s the solution? Hugo actually calls several times for public education as a solution to grinding poverty, but he makes it clear that revolution or education without God and an ethical concern for the poor is no progress. You see Hugo’s vision very clearly in the first 100 pages of the book, mostly focused on the character of the Bishop of Digne. The movie has just one song from the pious Bishop Bienvenu ["Would you leave the best behind?"], but I can’t get him out of my head lately. I’d love his thoughts on current events, especially the election of a new Pope during March Madness (for example, you can participate by voting in the Sweet Sistine brackets). I just have to laugh to recall how Hugo described the Conclave contrasted with our saintly bishop’s ambitions:

“And as every there are the top brass, in the church there are rich miters. … And then there is Rome. A bishop who can become archbishop, an archbishop who can become a cardinal, leads you to the conclave; you enter into the rota, you have the pallium, there you are an auditor, you ate a chamberlain, you are a monseigneur, and from Grandeur to Eminence there is only one step, and between Eminence and Holiness there is nothing but the smoke of a ballot. Every cowl may dream of the tiara. In our day the priest is the only man who can regularly become a king, and what a king! The supreme king. So, what a nursery of aspirations is a seminary. … Who knows how easily ambition disguises itself under the name of a calling, possibly in good faith and deceiving itself, in sanctimonious confusion.

“Monseigneur Bienvenu, a humble, poor, private person, was not counted among the rich miters. This was plain by the complete absence of young priests around him. … We live in a sad society. Succeed-that is the advice that falls drop by drop from the overhanging corruption.”

Succeed at all costs. Is this the central, pounding drum beat of our education and our religion? Or is there something more to life, some higher calling that asks us to think differently about how society as a whole might progress, especially on behalf of those who are still enslaved in our midst?

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Filed under Book Reviews, Education, GED Test Instructors, Religion & Spirituality, Social Justice & Inclusivity

Available Now! Teaching Adults: A 2014 GED® Test Resource Book

Well, Farrell Scholars, the day has finally arrived. You can now order Teaching Adults: A 2014 GED® Test Resource Bookdue out in April exclusively from New Readers Press. Pre-order by April 30, 2013 for a 20% discount with the code GEDSO.

Teaching Adults GED CVR

Are you interested in bringing a workshop or webinar about the 2014 GED test or technology integration to your group or organization?

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Coolest Free Trainings You’ve Never Heard of in Cleveland, Ohio

WARNING: This is one of my last non-“book response” posts.  I read a lot, and I know my readers do, too, so I’ve decided that instead of trying to come up with random interesting topics to blog about, I’m just going to post responses to the best writing I encounter. Don’t worry, I’ll still be parked squarely on that  lovely marginal intersection of religion, technology, and education. Stay tuned to continue following my quest to break out of the pink ghetto, create an inclusive society through service, and increase literacy rates in Northeast Ohio.

As Training Coordinator of Northeast Ohio Literacy Corps, I get to interact with bright & energized AmeriCorps members of all ages who are giving a year of service to aid literacy programs in Cleveland nonprofits. It’s my challenge to create a training calendar that engages this full range of diverse professionals. I get a lot of awesome recommendations from our training committee, and wanted to share with you some of the best free training you will not find on any event calendar.  These trainings are available for groups by request, and I focused on the ones relevant to a diverse group of adult nonprofit professionals.

Tour of Chateau Hough with Mansfield Frazier: Email or call Mansfield Frazier and he’ll accommodate you. But beware! 20 minutes with Mr. Frazier may incite random acts of community revitalization.

Cleveland Clinic Community Outreach Health Education Program: Health topics tailored to the needs of your group for improved health & well being.

Cleveland Metroparks Historical Interpreters: This is history as it should be taught: using imagination, song, and real objects to bring the stories of the past to life.

Book Club with Cleveland Public Library: Who better to help you develop a book club than a librarian? Decide on your topic, then call the director of your local branch or explore the departments of the Main Library to find the right person for your area of interest. Amazon can never beat the price of borrowing a book from the library (FREE!). You can schedule a trip to the Bookmobile or tour a branch, too, to invite participants to check out more books. September is Library Card Amnesty Month (that’s my title for it) where patrons can sign up for a card and have their fines forgiven, so it’s a great time to renew interest!

Western Reserve Historical Society Speakers Bureau: Programs about WRHS are free of charge, and nonprofits get a reduced rate of $75 for other topics. Visit WRHS, have the speaker come to you, or schedule a videoconference.

Cleveland Museum of Art: Click “school tours” to fill out a request at least 3 weeks in advance of your visit. Then make sure to leave some time for your group to explore on their own!

Case Western Reserve University’s LGBT Center: With diversity training all the rage, it can be difficult to find quality training for free. CWRU LGBT Center to the rescue! The Center Director, Liz Roccoforte, is very willing to come to community groups to facilitate anywhere from a one hour introductory training to a full Safe Zone certification workshop.

Tours of Cleveland schools: It helps to have a personal connection to schedule a tour. Incorporating a question & answer session or classroom observation can be a great starting point to learn more in depth what is working (or not, depending on where you visit) in urban public education.

For individuals:

Foundation Center Cleveland: Looking for money for your own education, a nonprofit, or community project? Learn how to find funding with the Foundation Center’s robust schedule of classroom courses and on-demand online content. It’s hard to know where to start, so use their Course Advisor for an individualized plan.

PBS Learning Media: Through WVIZ ideastream, educators can create accounts for free access to interactive, digital PBS content. Search for “Cleveland” and see what you find!

Ohio Resource Center Ambassador Program: Individuals can apply to participate in three free days of professional development to become an ORC Ambassador.  You can also search for Ambassadors in your area (like me!) to request a presentation, but there may be fees associated.

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Filed under Adult Education, Education, NEO Literacy Corps

Special Presentation on Assessment by Dr. Tom Sticht

This week we have a guest post from Jose L. Cruz, Chief Executive Officer, San Diego Council on Literacy

I wanted to share with all of you the information we captured yesterday from a special two-hour presentation made for the San Diego Council on Literacy by Dr. Tom Sticht

(Farrell Ink note: did you check out Dr Sticht’s bio!  He’s amazing! He literally wrote the book on Intergenerational Transfer of Learning. Turns out one book wasn’t enough…here’s volume 2.)

Locally, we have this notion of reporting the literacy skill advancement of students countywide. If you were with us, you would have heard Tom deliver an outstanding presentation on the history and challenges of measuring learner progress in adult education and literacy. Here are my notes from Tom’s presentation:

  1. Many tests, not just normed or criterion-referenced tests, are standardized. Anyone can create a standardized test as long as it is administered and scored in a consistent, or “standard”, manner.
  2. Knowledge is attained faster than skills. Skills take time and practice. They are not taught.
  3. Oracy (listening, speaking, vocabulary) is the foundation for reading. Most often, a person’s oracy skills exceeds their reading or decoding skills. The goal is to close this gap so that the person’s ability to read catches up with their vocabulary.
  4. A first question to ask and answer is, “What are we testing?” Most tests do not test what was taught, especially those that are norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and competency-based. These tests (CASAS, TABE, ABLE, TALS) are typically those that are recognized as being approved for measuring learner progress.
  5. Curriculum-based assessment tools test what was taught.
  6. A flaw in literacy instruction is the inclination to focus on general literacy and literacy skills, while minimizing the advantages that come from teaching literacy sing a specific content area.
  7. Most unfortunate is that literacy assessment tools, like the Test of Adult Literacy Skills (TALS) and others, test general literacy. The data shows that, when this is done, literacy skill advancement appears to be deceptively minimal.
  8. When skills are assessed via emphasis of instruction upon specific content areas or goals (read the Bible, prepare for a job, learn about healthcare) knowledge is acquired and skills are improved and can be proven to be improved if the assessment tool relates to the specific content that was taught.
  9. Also not being measured are the increases in the confidence level of adult students (parents) who receive instruction and who are able to support the literacy skill acquisition of their children because they are engaged in their own improvement in reading and overall education.
  10. What is important is that students are able to transfer skill acquisition to tests that measure general literacy.

How does this relate to your thoughts on assessment? Is this relevant to our current discussion on the 2014 changes in the GED test?

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Filed under Adult Education, GED Test Instructors

Support the Tutor Training Collaborative on 2/23

Adult Literacy TutorCome out to support The Literacy Cooperative’s efforts to obtain funding to pilot a Tutor Training Collaborative in Cuyahoga County!

On February 23, 2012, at Shaker Launch House, Cleveland Colectivo is hosting a Fast Pitch Presentation Night. Presentations start at 6:30pm, expected to last until 8:30pm.  Click here for details.  Admission is $5 and you get to vote on the one idea to receive the cash collected that night. Several projects will be invited to submit a full application for funding.  In addition to the potential funding, it is a great opportunity to increase awareness and support for the Tutor Training Collaborative.  Please save the date, share this in your networks, and bring some colleagues and friends!  You can just show up, but I’d love if you would email me (Meagen at farrellink@yahoo.com) so I know how many friendly faces to expect.

About our project: Our vision for the tutor training collaborative is a centralized portal that provides quality tutor recruitment, training, certification, and recognition for adult literacy providers in Cuyahoga County& eventually for greater Northeast Ohio. The purpose of the program will be to increase adult learner outcomes through better prepared and trained tutors.  The Literacy Cooperative has been coordinating a planning workgroup that is currently pursuing grants to pilot the project.

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Adult Literacy Education Wiki

All hail the ALE!!!

Looking for best practices in adult literacy education?  Do you have quality research or reflections to share with your fellow adult literacy practitioners?  Interested in adult literacy education but don’t know where to start?

Participate in the conversation at the Adult Literacy Education (ALE) Wiki.  The wiki was created and continues to be moderated by David Rosen, an independent consultant with Newsome Associates.  Its topics cover various segments and definitions of the field.  Browse by topic or search for the answers to life’s persistent questions.

For example, have you ever wondered what are the different standards for adult basic education in states across the U.S.?

Or maybe you want to take a peek at what ESOL looks like in Scotland (among other ESOL resources)?

Like any wiki, it is a website with content created by its users.  You can register to add content that is relevant for you.

In particular, it could use some images.  The ALE wiki looks a lot like wikipedia with one major difference: where are the photos?  I certainly can’t fault Djrosen, who looks very busy creating all sorts of quality content and keeping spam off the site.  But if this type of challenge is for you, consider contributing to this open source encyclopedia of Adult Literacy Education knowledge.

Calling all visual content developers!  You could start by creating a visual clarifier for workforce development.

Visit the ALE wiki today for lots of other interesting topics, questions, and answers.

Will you join me?

All hail the ALE!!!  (Wiki, that is.)

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Filed under Adult Education, Free Cool Online Tools

Khan Academy for Adult Learners

For the past couple years, I have been on the hunt to find or create a FREE online curriculum for adult learners to advance in adult basic 

Khan Academyeducation and study for the GED.  Last spring the name Khan Academy started popping up.  Here are some of the things I’ve heard from ABE and GED colleagues about Khan Academy:

“I think it’s a great way to reinforce lessons for those that need extra practice.”  Linda Letherwood, Adult Education Professional in Jackson, MS

“Excuse me if I sound too enthusiastic, but I can’t help myself when it comes to the Khan Academy. I think it’s the best thing that ever happened on the Internet!” Beth Lurie, Instructor at RSU#3 SPICE in Thorndike, Maine

“My overall assessment of the program is that it is excellent.  Sal is incredibly engaging and generally has enough video instruction that even the most challenging concepts become clear. The set up and integration between the videos and practice problems is very good.” Debbi Perkul, Workforce  Development Professional at University Hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio

“I, personally, am very excited about it and think it is a wonderful tool for anyone.”  Bob Stephenson, Executive Director of The Literacy Coalition in Kokomo, IN

Lots of enthusiasm, but several shared difficulties using Khan Academy in their programs.  So let’s hear more about what works and what doesn’t using this tool for adult education.  My major questions are:

  • What is Khan Academy?
  • What skills does an adult learner need to be successful on Khan Academy?
  • What does it take for an adult educator or tutor to start using Khan Academy?
  • Is Khan Academy the solution for a free online curriculum for adult basic education & GED preparation?

What is Khan Academy?

To summarize in one sentence: Khan Academy is a series of instructional videos and practice exercises where learners can earn points and badges for participation, and a coach or teacher can track their progress.

Founder Salman Kahn offers a funny and insightful explanation of the history and format of Khan Academy in this 20 minute TED Talks video on the “About” page.

(Beware: Don’t read comments on YouTube.  The language is filthy.  I can completely understand why schools filter it out.)

What skills does an adult learner need to be successful on Khan Academy?

Beth Lurie, Instructor in Thorndike, Maine says all it takes for a learner to be successful is…“Log on. You can’t miss learning what you need to learn about math. It’s fun, it’s math made easy, and you can log your progress.”

I don’t think it’s quite so easy.  However, it requires a fairly low threshold for basic computer literacy: learners need to be able to use a mouse, type, view a video, and navigate a website.  My biggest concern with getting anyone online is to explicitly teach and emphasize how to manage accounts and navigate the internet safely, especially advertising.  Online GED preparation scams are a big money-maker.

Specifically, learners need to be able to set up and manage either a Google or Facebook account.  They must be able to remember their login information!!!! (I find this a recurring problem with program administrators, let alone adult learners!)

Debbi Purkel, Workforce Development Professional in Cleveland, Ohio adds that adult learners “have to have the confidence to figure out how to navigate around the site. They also have to be motivated and self-directed.”  Personally, I think of these websites as just the next stage of textbooks. Just like with paper textbooks I think good tutors use good old-fashioned instructional strategies like modeling and scaffolding to use these tools to support adult learners in their educational success.

What does it take for an adult educator or tutor to start using Khan Academy?

It seems the major barrier to using Khan Academy is emotional.  Technology integration is as much about changing attitudes and building managerial support as it is about using the actual technology.  Debbi Perkul of Cleveland, Ohio said that to use Khan Academy, instructors need: “the ability to be flexible, and the lack of ego to allow another instructor [Salman Khan] teach math.”  Flexibility and lack of ego do not come easily for most of us!

If an educator is already using online materials to teach or practice math, then the only thing that I could see to prevent them from using Khan Academy is personal motivation and their organization’s internet filters.  Which leads us to our last question:

Is Khan Academy the solution for a free online curriculum for adult basic education & GED preparation?

Right now, sadly, NO. I have three reasons, and possible solutions:


Based on Salman Khan’s personal history as a hedge fund manager, the focus of the current content is math and finance, but math alone is not enough to pass the GED.  They recently added an entire section on Art History from the website smarthistory, which is very exciting, but not on the GED test.  I hope similar partnerships become a trend to round out their content.  He has a section for the math portions of the MCAT & SAT, so GED math could be next!

Add GED to Khan Academy PLEASE

To get the ball rolling, I organized a campaign to add adult basic education and GED preparation to Khan Academy. There are two quick “one click” solutions to help out the cause!

Update (11/12/2012): The campaign has closed, but you can still go to KhanAcademy.org and request the addition of GED content!


All Khan Academy videos are organized by playlist on YouTube (their channel has over 200,000 subscribers).  This caused a major issue for Linda Letherwood, Adult Education Professional in Jackson, MS, who said, “I would love to use it with my students. However, we are in the public school system and they block You Tube videos.  I can only suggest they do it at home or in the library.” There’s also filthy language posted in the comments on videos all over YouTube, so I would include in-class mini-lessons on netiquette.

One solution to this problem is to search individually for the Khan Academy videos on TeacherTube, which is a district-web-filter-friendly version of YouTube.  As a user, you can download one of the YouTube videos then upload it into TeacherTube for use in the classroom.  Some of the users there have already begun uploading Khan Academy videos to TeacherTube, but then you lose all the tracking capabilities.

Another solution is for Khan Academy to create an official channel on TeacherTube or another filter-friendly site (hint, hint!!).  In the meantime, disabling or at least moderating comments on YouTube would be very appreciated (are you reading this, Khan Academy?).

Update (11/12/2012): Teachers can now find appropriate educational videos on You Tube EDU and schools can sign up for You Tube for Schools.


My biggest professional hurdle is not getting people to do things they don’t want to do…it’s helping volunteers to follow through on the good projects they do want to accomplish.  Khan Academy is no exception.  Bob Stephenson in Kokoma, Indiana shares a possible solution: “I introduced the Khan Academy to my math tutors this summer. Although they were interested I am not sure anyone is using it at this time. I think I will begin tutoring a student in math using it to work through any problems and develop teaching strategies. After that I can present it to them again during a tutor in-service training and have results to back up my experience.”  Bob sounds like a guy I would like to work with!

As with any change, there can be anxiety, frustration and confusion starting something new.  But the potential benefits in terms of learner engagement and profile tracking mean the investment of time and energy will be paid back with interest once classes, tutors, and programs get started.

Are you using Khan Academy to learn or teach?  Comment and tell us your story!


Filed under Adult Education, Free Cool Online Tools, GED Math, GED Test Instructors, GED Test Preparation

Free New Adult Literacy Tutor Training

I’ve heard a recent resurgence of interest in ProLiteracy’s free online courses for tutor training. I recently updated my previous post for programs with new links. Here is the abbreviated version just with directions for tutors:

To sign up as a new tutor, go to ProLiteracy Education Network’s online courses. Follow the enrollment instructions (you will need an email address). The courses are listed in alphabetical order. You can browse the entire catalog of classes online or take a look at this list of Content Clusters for Related Courses. I recommend using the modules in this order:

  1. Succeeding as an Online Learner (Optional for new distance learners)
  2. Orientation to Volunteering in Literacy
  3. Principles of Adult Learning
  4. Making Math Manageable
  5. Before, During & After–A Reading Comprehension Technique
  6. Unleashing Potential Through Multi-Intelligent Literacy Instruction
  7. Working With Adult Literacy Learners

If you are only going to take a couple courses as an introduction, I consider these two the most important: Principles of Adult Learning and Working With Adult Literacy Learners. These courses are especially important for our many excellent tutors who are retired K-12 teachers. While the techniques of instruction can often transfer, there are many important differences between adult basic education/GED programs and K-12 education. A clear understanding of adult learning and realistic expectations of adult learners is key for success and satisfaction as an adult literacy tutor.

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Filed under Adult Education, Free Cool Online Tools

Best Practice: SPICE Virtual Learning Center

In discussing family literacy with colleagues lately, I got an email from this awesome program overcoming rural isolation in Maine using a virtual learning center:

“The Students & Parents in Cooperative Education (SPICE) Family Literacy Program is part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database for effective family literacy best practices. I have spoken to various program staff in the world and rural isolation seems to be a familiar theme.

The SPICE program serves a 440-square mile region in very rural western Waldo County Maine. (I’m sure the demographics are quite different where you are from in Cleveland Ohio). We have 70% poverty level here and our program is home-based. However, our families told us that they feel isolation and unconnected from the world. We are in the process of helping to alleviate this issue. We have created a virtual learning center to help our students start to feel connected. Though we have only been up and running since February 2011, our students have been able to talk to people outside Maine, when we presented the virtual center at the National Family Literacy Conference in Kentucky this past April. Our students are still talking about who they interacted with and how much fun that was. We are still gathering data with the use of the learning center, but anecdotal evidence would prove that we may be dealing exactly with the isolation issue that we wanted to work on.

Our demo is out of date, because the world is always evolving. We have two college classrooms upstairs (math and English), so our first generation students can get a taste of college classes, downstairs, we have a GED prep class, PLATO lab, and family literacy classroom. We are going to expand the center and add a Fine Arts classroom and will be opening the center up to Adult Education students this Fall. The demo will show you most of the rest of what it out there, though I can tell you that we have added some interesting sights outside (including a pirate ship, surfing cow, and crashed cargo plane). Those are just a few of the items that we encourage our students to find as they learn to maneuver their avatars in the center.

Below is the demo of our virtual center:



Come and visit us when you can! Enjoy and if you have any questions, please just ask.

Pat Hughes
RSU #3 Adult & Community Education Director
SPICE Family Literacy Program Administrator
577 Mount View Road
Thorndike, ME 04986

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Filed under Adult Education, GED Test Instructors

Write On Books: Top 5 Learning Skills

Why do I insist on buying my own books?  Because I can do this to them:image

I don’t just read a book: I digest it. I flip down the corners of pages to remember, look up things I don’t know, and talk about ideas with friends. Working in the field of adult literacy, we work hard to teach low level learners the basic strategies of reading, writing, and math. Once folks have the basic mechanics down, the next hurdle is strategies of critical thinking: compare & contrast, fact vs opinion, identifying bias, etc.

Lately, I’ve been thinking we might serve our learners better if we focused first on the basics of how to learn independently. So here are my top 5 skills for lifelong learning, strategies that have never let me down:

1. WRITE ON BOOKS: I have yet to be converted to buying an e-reader for the simple fact that I haven’t seen anyone scribble on the pages.  Writing on books can mean underlining or circling words & phrases, putting blocks & stars around quotes, making notes in the margins, even drawing pictures and turning down pages to return to later.  The key here is return to later.  The key quality of learning is that you gain skills or information you can return to at another time.  The easier it is for me to get back to the things I want to remember, the easier it is for me to read it again & make another impression in the soft grey matter of my brain.

Cell Phone Calculator2. USE THE CALCULATOR ON YOUR PHONE: Cell phones are common place these days, and there’s no charge to minutes or texts for using the calculator.  Pull it out to figure out how much Netflix will cost you over the course of one year, or compare the cost per diaper for different brands at Target.  Make it competitive: Whose car has the better gas mileage?  Or get silly: What is the collective age of all the pets in your house?  I know some people disagree with the use of calculators, but I consider it just an instrument without which I would miss much of the music of the numbers in my life.

3. MAKE A CALENDAR: I know that sounds like a basic life-skills, but actually it’s relevant to learning.  Calendars are just a measure of time, and marking that time, organizing your day & week & month are really making mathematical models about how to spend this limited resource.  Not only that, but if you write down the days & times of your learning opportunities (Learning for Life Class at 1:30pm on Tuesday) and check your calendar daily, you are more likely to show up & learn!

4. TRY SOMETHING NEW…AND MASTER IT: Nothing is a better work out for your brain then stepping outside of your comfort zone.  Whether it’s going to a new place, meeting people of a different culture, eating new food, testing out a new game…  Trying something new has to be balanced with having some structural and comfort zone in your life, but when you push yourself to not just try out a new area, but really wrap your mind around it and make it your own, THEN you will really gain invaluable skills that no one can take from you.

Daily planner with tasks for each day of the week5. MAKE PREDICTIONS…AND FOLLOW UP: In your daily planner that you will now carry everywhere you go, along with your cell phone calculator, jot notes about what you think will happen in your day.  When will you do certain activities?  How many glasses of juice will you drink?  Will your mother-in-law call about holiday plans?  What’s the weather going to be like?  When you have a question, write down what actually happened.  At the end of the day, go back to your observations and see if you were right.  Why did things turn out the way they did?  Guess what…you just did the scientific method.  You started with a theory (prediction or question), tested your idea against reality, and then analyzed those results to figure out why.  Whether it’s asking if your toast is going to burn or if the space-time continuum changes at the speed of light, the process is the same.  Pat yourself on the back, Einstein.

What do you think?  Are these 5 everyday skills you can use to make yourself into a lifelong learner?  Is there anything I forgot?  I predict there will be comments on this post.  Check back soon to see if my theory is correct.

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Filed under Adult Education, Uncategorized, Writing & Other Services